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        利潤問題解法小析-2019年公務員聯考行測解題技巧

        http://www.cuteteenslut.com       2019-01-17 16:07      來源:公考通
        【字體: 】              

          從近幾年來的公務員考試行測真題可以看出,題目設計越來越貼近生活,其中,與生活貼合度較高的題型首當其沖就是利潤問題,所以利潤問題出現頻率較高。下面本文就帶大家一起學習利潤問題的解題技巧。


          一、基本概念


          “成本、進價、售價、定價、打折、打折率、折扣率、降價、利潤、利潤率”,對于這些名詞,不要求大家能一字不落地說出其定義,但是至少要知道這些名詞表達的是什么意思,這些名詞有著什么樣的關聯。


          首先需要注意的是:


          一是到目前為止,所考過的公務員試題中,進價就直接認為是成本;


          二是在沒打折或降價的情況下,定價就是售價;


          三是打折出現時,售價=定價×打折率;


          四是打折率與折扣率只是不同的表達方式而已,打折率是0.8,即折扣率是0.2;


          五是降價20%,即打八折;


          六是一般情況下,利潤率就是指成本利潤率,利潤率=利潤÷成本。


          二、基本公式


          1.利潤=售價-成本

         

              \


          2.售價=成本×(1+利潤率)

         

              \


          三、常用方法


          1.方程法。 根據題干描述所給條件以及基本數量關系,尋找等量關系,列方程求解,關鍵是找到等量關系


          【例題1】某商場舉行羽絨服專賣會,一件羽絨服連續兩次8折降價銷售(即連續兩次降價20%),降價后的價格為320元,問原價是多少?


          解析:根據題干中“降價后的價格為320元”,以及基本數量關系“折后售價=折前售價×折扣÷10”,可用方程法解題。設原價為x元,則根據題意可得方程:0.8×0.8x=320,解得x=500元,即原價為500元。


          2.特值法。一般情況下,把未知量成本設為特值,常設為1或100。


          【例題2】某商店出售一件商品,可獲利潤35%,今以原售價的8折出售,問仍可獲利百分之幾?


          A.28 B.15 C.8 D.7


          【答案】C。解析:設商品的成本為100,則原售價為100×(1+35%)=135,現在售價為135×80%=108,故可獲利(108-100)÷100×100%=8%


          很多考生感覺行測中最難的部分是數學運算,因而一開始便打算放棄。其實真正領悟到數學運算的內涵后,會發現很容易的,它其實就是題型和方法的結合。只要做題后善于總結,抓住問題的本質,那么就能得到理想的成績和分數。

         

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