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        類比推理如何繞過命題人的“坑”-2019年公務員聯考行測解題技巧

        http://www.cuteteenslut.com       2019-03-22 16:32      來源:公考通
        【字體: 】              

          在行測考試當中,類比推理是常考題型,總體來說,該題型為半常識性題型,應對該種題目,總體的應對思路是:先內容后形式,先橫向后縱向。具體說就是先從題干所給出的詞語之間的內部關系思考,回憶和對應常考考點,然后再從題干詞語和選項詞語之間對應的關系思考,從而鎖定正確答案。不過,類比推理看似簡單,大家在應對該題型的時候還是會出現各種問題。小編認為該題型的難度在于命題人會設置各種各樣的陷阱,如何能夠合理地繞過命題人的設置的“坑”是我們快速解題的關鍵。


          【例題1】先橫向后縱向(基礎方法)。


          汽車:發動機


          A.汽車:輪胎 B.電腦:CPU


          C.水果:蘋果 D.水泥:磚


          【答案】B。參考解析:首先觀察題干,很明顯發動機是汽車的一部分,整體和部分是我們理論所學習的組成關系。觀察選項不難判斷,A、B均為組成關系,保留。C很明顯種屬關系,排除。D并列關系排除。接下來再分析A、B,輪胎是汽車的非核心,而CPU是電腦的核心部件,所以最優選項為B.


          【例題2】造句法,不一定靠譜。


          花椒:麻


          A.月亮:圓 B.飲料:冷


          C.火焰:熱 D.水泥:硬


          【答案】C。參考解析:很多學生看到這類題目時會直接采用造句排除法。看到題干覺著“花椒是麻的”,然后分析選項,發現四個選項均可以如此造句,所以無法選擇。兩項式建議大家優先找詞項間對應關系。但會出現詞語間對應關系不明確,錯誤的常識誤導之下選B的同學特別多.首先分析題干,可以發現花椒與麻的對應關系為:麻是花椒的特點,接著分析選項是A月亮的特點并不一定是圓,(可以是其他非滿月的狀態,如,新月、殘月),很多同學覺著生活中飲料都是冰鎮的,特點就是冷,但實際上飲料也包括熱飲,當然還有常溫啊。所以“冷”并非所有飲料的特征,排除。同樣還有些人會覺得會覺著生活中水泥是硬的,選D,但實際上,水泥是粉狀,只有加水之后,才能逐漸變硬,因此排除。而C項中火的特點是熱,是固有的且確定的,與題干一致,因此本題正確答案為C。


          【例題3】題干詞項間沒有規律,直接進行縱向比較。


          企鵝:瑪瑙


          A.電腦:手機   B.禿鷲:石墨


          C.蘋果:木瓜   D.蝴蝶:蚱蜢


          【答案】B。參考解析:首先觀察題干,企鵝是生物,瑪瑙是礦物,它們倆內部之間沒有關系。只有B項中禿鷺是生物,石墨是礦物。直接進行縱向比較,答案為B。


          類比推理題目總體上難度不大,但是要在考試的時候全部拿下該部分題目,除了需要嚴格按照“先內容后形式”的思路去解決此類題目,同時,在平時也要注意生活常識、經驗的積累和儲備,另外一定要注意一些特殊情況,不要掉入考官的“坑”。



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