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        2020年公務員考試常識積累:神奇的仿生學

        http://www.cuteteenslut.com       2019-05-23 17:08      來源:公考通
        【字體: 】              

          公務員考試常識判斷模塊考查范圍廣泛,需要大家在日常多加積累,在此公考通(www.cuteteenslut.com)總結了仿生學的常識,希望對大家備考常識模塊有幫助。


          神奇的仿生學


          人們發現,一些關于植物和動物的相類似的功能,實際上是超越了人類自身在此方面的技術設計方案的。植物和動物在幾百萬年的自然進化當中不僅完全適應自然而且其程度接近完美。仿生學試圖在技術方面模仿動物和植物在自然中的功能。


          仿生學的定義


          仿生學是研究生物系統的結構和性質以為工程技術提供新的設計思想及工作原理的科學。屬于生物科學與技術科學之間的邊緣學科。


          它涉及生物學、生物物理學、生物化學、物理學、控制論、工程學等學科領域。仿生技術通過對各種生物系統所具有的功能原理和作用機理作為生物模型進行研究,最后實現新的技術設計并制造出更好的新型儀器、機械等。


          仿生學例子


          蒼蠅與振動陀螺儀


          蒼蠅是聲名狼藉的“逐臭之夫”,凡是腥臭污穢的地方,都有它們的蹤跡。


          蒼蠅的楫翅(又叫平衡棒)是個“天然導航儀”,人們模仿它制成了“振動陀螺儀”。這種儀器已經應用在火箭和高速飛機上,實現了自動駕駛。


          蝙蝠與雷達


          蝙蝠會釋放出一種超聲波,這種聲波遇見物體時就會反彈回來,而人類聽不見。雷達就是根據蝙蝠的這種特性發明出來的。在各種地方都會用到雷達,例如:飛機、航空等。


          從螢火蟲到人工冷光


          在自然界中,有許多生物都能發光、在眾多的發光動物中,螢火蟲是其中的一類。


          螢火蟲約有1500種,它們發出的冷光的顏色有黃綠色、橙色,光的亮度也各不相同。螢火蟲發出冷光不僅具有很高的發光效率,而且發出的冷光一般都很柔和,很適合人類的眼睛,光的強度也比較高。因此,生物光是一種人類理想的光。


          早在40年代,人們根據對螢火蟲的研究,創造了日光燈,使人類的照明光源發生了很大變化。科學家先是從螢火蟲的發光器中分離出了純熒光素,后來又分離出了熒光酶,接著,又用化學方法人工合成了熒光素。


          人們已能用摻和某些化學物質的方法得到類似生物光的冷光,作為安全照明用。


          翠鳥和新干線


          日本的工程師們成功地制造出了新一代新干線列車,其運行時速超過320公里,但是當列車高速行駛時其產生的噪音超過了環境標準,這是由于列車高速通過狹窄的車道時將產生音爆效應。


          這一問題的一部分原因是列車的車頭是子彈型,因此它會“推擠”前方的空氣而非“切穿”過去。為了解決這個問題,工程師們從翠鳥的嘴巴上得到了靈感,這種鳥類在沖向水中捕魚時只會濺起很少的水花。


          觀察發現,翠鳥擁有一個流線形的長長鳥嘴,其直徑逐漸增加,以便讓水流順暢向后流動。通過仿生學設計,工程師們對子彈車頭進行重新改造,西日本鐵路公司制造出了500系列列車,并于1997年投入使用。實踐證明這種列車的車速比起原有設計提升了10%,而電力消耗降低了15%,而噪音水平也有了顯著下降。


          像鯊魚那樣對抗細菌


          很多鯨類和海牛的身上會長出藻類甚至藤壺,但是不知道你注意過沒有,鯊魚的身上卻從來不會出現這種情況。這似乎得益于鯊魚身上一種被稱為“盾鱗”的結構。這是一種軟骨魚類特有的,與牙齒結構近似,由表皮和真皮共同形成的鱗片,這也是鯊魚的皮膚摸上去非常粗糙的原因。


          科學家們根據鯊魚皮膚的構造啟發,設計了一種被稱為“鯊魚”的表面工程設計。這種表面結構本身不需借助任何其他手段,其本身便可以阻止細菌在其表面生長。一家名為“鯊魚技術”的公司已經將應用這種仿生技術的貼膜銷售給許多需要防菌的用戶,并生產了一些有意義的新型產品,如不會被細菌感染的導尿管等等。


          像蚊子那樣扎針


          不管過后有多么其癢難耐,你會發現蚊子在咬人時你是不怎么疼的。蚊子的口器接觸人體的方式可以使它觸發盡可能少的皮膚神經,從而減少疼痛反應。


          在對這一現象進行的滲入研究中,日本關西大學的工程師們制造出了一種細微的,根據蚊子口器仿生制成的鋸齒形針尖。和傳統的圓柱狀針管不同,在中央針尖的旁邊還設置了兩條細微的外側鋸齒條,極大地降低扎入人體的痛楚。


          全天然空調系統


          白蟻會建造這樣巨大的巢穴系統,但是在炎熱干燥的非洲草原上,這樣一個建筑的內部卻總是能自己保持恒溫和濕潤。不論外界多么潮濕,干旱,高溫或寒冷,對其內部毫無影響。為了做到這一點,白蟻們會視情況在一天中忙著不停的打開或關閉不同方向的通風口。


          在設計津巴布韋首都哈拉雷市的東門購物中心和辦公大樓時,設計師麥克·皮爾斯研究了白蟻巢穴的結構。其結果是,東門購物中心只需要傳統設計10%的能量消耗。這樣形成的節約使它得以降低租金,從而吸引更多商戶入駐。


          尼龍搭扣和蒼耳


          尼龍搭扣是由瑞士工程師德梅斯特拉爾發明的。


          德梅斯特拉爾他喜愛郊游與打獵,每當他從郊外回來后,常發現他的衣服上粘著一些鬼針草的種子,除去這些鬼針草的種子很費事,這引起了他的興趣,于是從衣服上取下一顆種子放在放大鏡下仔細觀察,發現種子上的芒毛有一個個小鉤子,正是這些小鉤子抓住了衣服上的紗線。由此他突發奇想,如果能在帶子上也產生這些類似的小鉤子,它不就也可以使布帶相互搭接代替紐扣和拉鏈了嗎?


          在鬼針草種子的啟示下,他經過8年的精心研究,終于設計了定型的產品,這便是尼龍搭扣帶的由來。拉鏈的發明雖然使穿衣更加方便、快捷而轟動服裝界,但搭扣的發明更勝一籌。


          【刷題鞏固


          1、下列關于仿生生物學的應用對應關系不正確的是:


          A.子彈頭列車——翠鳥


          B.發光纖維——螢火蟲


          C.維克羅尼龍搭扣——蒼耳


          D.全天然空調系統建筑——非洲白蟻巢穴


          【答案】B


          【解析】


          第一步,本題考查生活常識并選錯誤項。


          第二步,發光纖維是指受到光和放射線的照射時,能發出比照射光波長更長的可見光的纖維。螢火蟲有專門的發光細胞,細胞內部的化學物質與氧氣發生反應從而進行發光。兩者的發光原理不一樣,不屬于仿生生物學的應用。


          因此,選擇B選項。


          【拓展】


          A項:子彈頭列車設計靈感來自翠鳥的喙。列車在高速行駛中,列車車頭形成的風墻不僅僅會產生巨大的噪音,而且還會減慢列車的速度。而根據翠鳥喙部形狀設計的新型列車車頭可以消除這些問題,可以幫助列車能效提高20%。


          C項:維克羅尼龍搭扣是由瑞士發明家喬治發明的,靈感來源于蒼耳。蒼耳身上帶有一些小刺,這些小刺粘在有毛的褲子上,就會牢牢粘住,很難甩掉。喬治利用蒼耳的原理,發明了尼龍搭扣。


          D項:全天然空調系統建筑靈感來源于非洲白蟻的巢穴。白蟻建造的巢穴系統,即使在炎熱干燥的非洲草原上,也可以使建筑內部總能保持恒溫和濕潤。設計師麥克研究了白蟻的巢穴,設計出了津布巴韋首都哈拉雷市的東門購物中心和辦公大樓。



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